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Intestinal Parasites in Chickens

Intestinal parasites and worms have become an increasingly important concern for owners of backyard chicken flocks. When these parasites are present in abundance, there exists a very high risk of danger to poultry flocks regarding growth and egg production.

anivax parasite kit

“The severity of infection in chickens can be determined by analyzing the amount of parasite eggs in the bird's intestine,” according to John Buttery, CEO of Anivax.

The intestinal parasites make their way inside chickens when they eat contaminated feed or food in the form of earthworms, insects and litter. They can also become infected by drinking contaminated water.

The main symptoms of parasitic infection in a chicken include low weight, poor growth and feed conversions. Other symptoms include reduced rate of egg production and reduced resistance to disease. These problems may ultimately cause the death of the chicken.

Among all the parasites, round worms, also known as Ascaridia galli, cause the most damage to the flock. A heavy load of these worms blocks the intestines and causes death, in most cases. Other worms of importance are the Cecal and Capillaria worms. These parasites are known for causing infection in intestines, thus causing the thickening or swelling of intestines. It leads to poor feed absorption and in turn poor growth.

In order to ensure better growth and development of chicken poultry, it is very essential to reduced intestinal infections in birds. Periodic testing of your flock can help you manage their health.






Parasite and Salmonella Testing

anivax parasite kit

A parasite / worm test is called a worm egg count. This test is accomplished by examining a small sample of fecal matter in a lab to find out how many worm eggs are present. Anivax provides you with and easy to use specimen kit, including a vial, collection spoon, gloves, instructions and a prepaid postage label. We will analyze the results and contact you.
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Salmonella bacteria can be detected in fecal matter from a chicken. The test consists of growing the bacteria in culture. The specimen is placed in nutrient broth or on agar and incubated for 2-3 days. After that time, a trained microbiologist can identify the bacteria, if present, and confirm its identity by looking at biochemical reactions.
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Intestinal Parasites in Horses



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Internal parasites, or worms, can cause extensive internal damage without you even realizing your animals are heavily infected. The effects of parasites on a horse range from a dull haircoat and unthriftiness to colic and death. Internal parasites lower the horse's resistance to infection, rob the horse of valuable nutrients, and can cause permanent damage to internal organs.

There are more than 150 species of internal parasites that can infect horses. The most common and troublesome include; small strongyles (cyathostomins), roundworms (ascarids), tapeworms, sarge strongyles (bloodworms or redworms), pinworms, bots and threadworms.

In terms of management priorities, supplying the horse with clean, plentiful water and high-quality feed is of great importance. Keeping pastures and stables free of manure has been shown to be effective in reducing parasite infestations in horses. Rotation of pastures, particularly by putting animals of other species into the rotation, can also reduce the amount of parasite infestation.


 



WORM and SALMONELLA  Chicken Specimen Tests

1) Purchase a specimen collection kit from one of our retailers or on-line. One kit covers a flock living in a common area. Horses should be tested individually.
2) Empty the Specimen Kit. Save all the contents. You will use the box to return the Specimen ID Release form.
3) Remove the specimen vial from the plastic bag and unscrew the cap. Put on the gloves before collecting the sample.
4) Use the spoon in the vial to collect fresh fecal matter (feces) from your chicken coop or horse barn. Fill the vial to the line. Because of their communal nature and common areas, one test is usually sufficient to test a small flock.
5) Remove the spoon (pull) from the lid and discard. Carefully replace the cap on vial. Be sure that it is very secure. Put the vial back in the plastic bag with paper towel and seal top.
6) Complete the Specimen ID Release form on the opposite side of this card. Check email / mail. Sign and date the form.
7) Place the vial (in the sealed plastic bag) and this card back in the box. Secure the box top using the white tape tab.
8) Remove the paper backing on the shipping label and affix it to the box. Use the label to help seal the box.
9) Postage is pre-paid so place the specimen box in a regular US Post Office out-going mailbox.
10) Anivax will confirm the receipt of the specimen kit and we will email your test results in 2-3 days.
11) Questions or problems? Contact Anivax at info@anivax.com or call / text us at (520) 834-1586.




Eliminating Antibiotics in Poultry

The momentum in the Poultry Industry is to eliminate antibiotics and use biologic vaccines. The use of some antibiotics can destroy certain bacteria in the gut and help livestock and poultry convert feed to muscle more quickly causing more rapid growth. This class of use has been the subject of controversy and scrutiny, and in 2012, FDA 4 asked livestock and poultry producers to phase out use of antibiotics for growth purposes. These companies have taken a proactive approach to eliminate antibiotics in their products.

Tyson Striving to Eliminate Antibiotics.  |  McDonald's Is Removing Antibiotics From Chicken.  |  Perdue eliminating Antibiotics in Chicken.  |  Chick-fil-A's No Antibiotics Ever Commitment.  |  Wal-Mart urges meat suppliers to curb antibiotics.  |  Safeway Adds 'Open Nature' to its Natural Foods.  |  Costco working to end use of antibiotics in chicken  |  Foster Farms to Eliminate Antibiotics in Poultry  |  Pilgrim's: No antibiotic for 25% of its chickens  |  Canada chicken farmers to eliminate antibiotics  |  Subway urged to eliminate antibiotics  |  KFC faces pressure no antibiotics in chicken  |  Panera Bread eliminates antibiotic use in poultry

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Salmonella in Backyard Chicken Flocks

john buttery
John Buttery, CEO of Anivax, john@anivax.com

People around the country are choosing to keep live poultry as part of a greener and healthier lifestyle. While you enjoy the benefits of backyard chickens, it is important to consider the risk of illness caused by parasites.

Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their droppings and on their bodies (feathers, feet, and beaks) even when they appear healthy and clean. salmonella The germs can also get on cages, coops, feed and water dishes, hay, plants, and soil in the area where the birds live and roam. Additionally, the germs can be found on the hands, shoes, and clothing of those who handle the birds or work or play where they live and roam. People become infected with Salmonella when they put their hands or other things that have been in contact with feces in or around their mouth.

Salmonella can make people sick with diarrhea, vomiting, fever and abdominal cramps. Sometimes, people can become so sick from a Salmonella infection that they have to go to the hospital. Children under the age of 5 years, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems, including pregnant women, are more likely to have a serious illness. When severe infection occurs, Salmonella may spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics

 


  

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Salmonella grows in poultry intestinal tracts.



Seemingly healthy chickens can carry Salmonella, but can spread the germs to people," according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a common concern to new chicken keepers.

Contamination in your back yard chicken flock can occur in a number of ways, including rat or mouse droppings in water, feed, damp soil or bedding/litter. It can then be transmitted to your family by eat improperly cooked meat or eggs from infected birds or by putting your hands in your mouth after touching chickens or eggs.

Symptoms in chickens include weak and lethargic birds, loose yellow or green droppings, purplish combs and wattles, a drop in egg production, increased thirst, decreased feed consumption and weight loss. It can be deadly in hens if not treated, and chickens who survive it become carriers, potentially passing the bacteria to their chicks and eggs

  




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Large Roundworms

large roundworm

The larva burrows into the mucosal lining of the chicken's small intestine

Large roundworms, Ascaridia galli, can have a devastating effect on growth, egg production, and over-all health. These parasites probably inflict the most damage because they interfere with feed absorption causing poor growth and production. Roundworms are passed from bird to bird by directly ingesting the parasite egg in fecal contaminated feed, water, or litter, or by eating grasshoppers or earthworms carrying the parasite.

Large roundworms has a semitransparent, creamy white and cylindrical body. The anterior end is characterized by a prominent mouth, which is surrounded by three large tri-lobed lips. The edges of the lips bear teeth-like denticles. The body is entirely covered with a thick proteinaceous structure called cuticle. The cuticle is striated transversely throughout the length of the body and cuticular alae are poorly developed. Two conspicuous papillae are situated on the dorsal lip and one on each of the subventral lips.

The larva then burrows into the mucosal lining of the small intestine where it undergoes two additional moults. It is this phase of their life cycle where these worms causes the most damage to their host. They then re-enter the small intestine and develop into adults where they live their lives out feeding on gut content and making a vast amount of eggs that would then be excreted by a host and free to continue their life cycle.


 




  

Large Animal and Poultry Veterinarians

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Cecal Worms


cecal worms

A carrier in the lifecycle of Histomonas meleagridis, a danger for turkeys

Cecal worms, Heterakis gallinarum, eggs are found to live for years in soil making it difficult to eliminate H. gallinarum from a domestic flock. Although the eggs are themselves infective, they can develop further into a second infective larval stage, which stays dormant until eaten by birds.

Cecal worms are about 1–2 cm in length with a sharply pointed tail and a preanal sucker. The parasite is a diecious species with marked sexual dimorphism. Males are smaller and shorter, measuring around 9mm in length, with a unique bent tail. Females are stouter and longer, measuring roughly 13mm in length, with a straight tail end.

The worms have a direct life cycle involving birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, grouse, partridges, pheasants, and quail as definitive hosts. Eggs are passed in feces by the host. At the optimal temperature of 72°F, they become infective in 12–14 days and remain infective for years in soil. Upon ingestion by a host, the embryonated eggs hatch into second-stage juveniles in the gizzard, and are passed to the cecum. Their development is completed in the lumen, but some may enter the mucosa and remain for years without further development.


 



  
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